CHAPTER 1 DAY 1
Unequaled praise from everywhere for a unique bestseller-----Harper Lee's
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD
The New York Times:"Marvelous ...Miss Lee's original characters are people to cherish in this winning first novel."
Harper Magazine :"A novel of great sweetness, humor ,compassion, and of mystery carefully sustained."
Boston Herald :"Has pace and power ... overflowing with life ."
The New Yorker: "skilled,unpretentious and totally ingenuous ... tough ,melodramatic,acute,funny."
San Francisco Examiner:"Miss Lee wonderfully builds the tranquil atmosphere of her Southern town ,and as adroitly causes it to erupt a shocking lava of emotions."
New York Herald Tribune :"Tender and searing ... splendid."
Chicago Tribune :"Of rare excellence ... a novel of strong contemporary national significance. "
Time Magazine :"Tactile brilliance ... has an edge that cuts through cant ... astonishing."
St.Louis Post Dispatch :"Exciting and surprising climax..."
Saturday Review Syndicate:"Stands alone as the best first novel of the year ... rare ,refreshing ."
Los Angeles Times :"Memorable ... vivid ... a gentle , persuasive humor and a glowing goodness ."
洛杉矶时报：“令人记忆深刻的... 生动的... 温柔的... 有说服力的幽默以及大众热烈赞扬的好评。”
Life Magazine :"Remarkable triumph ... Miss Lee writes with a wry compassion that makes her novel soar."
生活日报：“卓越的胜利... Lee 女士描绘了一幅充满扭曲同情的画面，并使她的小说不住的呐喊。”
Minneapolis Tribune :"The reader will find an immense satisfaction ... and a desire ,on finishing it , to start again on page one."
When he was nearly thirteen,my brother Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow.When it healed,and Jem's fears of never being able to play football were assuaged,he was seldom self-conscious about his injury.His left arm was somewhat shorter than his right; when he stood or walked ,the back of his hand was at right angles to his body ,his thumb parallel to his thigh.He couldn't have cared less,so long as he could pass and punt.
When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them ,we sometimes discussed the events leading to his accident. I maintain that the Ewells started it all,but Jem ,who was four years my senior ,said it started long before that.He said it began the summer Dill came to us ,when Dill first gave us the idea of making Boo Radley come out.
当我们能够直视那些发生在表哥身上的事情的时候，已经过去了很多年，我们开始敢于公开讨论导致表哥受伤的事情。我始终坚持这是由Ewell所引起的，但是比我大4岁的Jem表哥却说并不是，而是比这早得多。这件事是发生在那年夏天，Dill来找我们的时候，那时Dill第一次告诉了我们如何把Boo Radley 引出来的办法。
I said if he wanted to take a broad view of the thing,it really began with Andrew Jackson. If General Jackson hadn't run the Creeks up the creek,Simon Finch would never have paddled up the Alabama,and where would we be if he hadn't? We were far too old to settle an argument with a fist-fight,so we consulted Atticus .Our father said we were both right.
我说如果长远来看，其实应该是从Andrew Jackson开始的。如果Jackson将军当时没有把克里克人赶到河对岸，那么Simon Finch 将永远不会划船到Alabama,并且若是这样，我们此时会在哪呢？我俩已经过了用拳头解决这个问题的年龄，于是我们跑去问父亲 Atticus ，父亲说你们俩说的都对。
Being Southerners ,it was a source of shame to some members of the family that we had no recorded ancestors on either side of the battle of Hastings.All we had was Simon Finch ,a fur-trapping apothecary from Cornwall whose piety was exceeded only by his stinginess . In England, Simon was irritated by the persecution of those who called themselves Methodists at the hands of their more liberal brethren ,and as Simon called himself a Methodist,he worked his way across the Atlantic to Philadelphia, thence to Mobile ,and up the Saint Stephens . Mindful of John Wesley's strictures（可乐怀疑是structures 。。） on the use of many words in buying and selling ,Simon made a pile practicing medicine , but in this pursuit he was unhappy lest he be tempted into doing what he knew was not for the glory of God, as the putting on of gold and costly apparel. So Simon , having forgotten his teacher's dictum on the possession of human chattels ,bought three slaves and with their aid established a homestead on the banks of the Alabama River some forty miles above Saint Stephens. He returned to Saint Stephens only once , to find a wife ,and with her established a line that ran high to daughters .Simon lived to an impressive age and died rich.
作为南方人来说，这是一件对于我们有些家庭成员感到有些羞愧的事情--我们的祖先在Hastings战役中和交战双方都没有关系。而我们所熟知的就是Simon Finch,一位来自于Cornwall 的猎人兼药师，他的身上散发着虔诚的信念，而在他身上比虔诚更值得他在乎的就是吝啬了。在英国（可乐备注：英国包括England,Scotland, Wales）,Simon 对于那些来自声称自由派兄弟会的人的迫害感到十分恼怒，他用他的方式穿越了大西洋，来到了费城，然后去了Mobile ,接着去了 Saint Stephens ，Simon依靠着掌握了约翰-卫斯理经商的方法，在药品贸易上赚得盆满钵满.然而他并不高兴，因为有时其所作所为并不是属于上帝的荣耀，比如受到的诱惑--穿金带银等等。因此，Simon索性将老师的教条--人生自由抛于脑后，并买下了三个奴隶，并在这三人的帮助下在距离 Saint Stephens 大概40英里处，在Alabama 河岸（第一次知道bank有河岸的意思）建立了属于自己的家园。他仅仅回过 Saint Stephens 一次，那是为了去寻找他的妻子以及和妻子建立一个生产孩子的流水线，其中女孩偏多。最终Simon度过了精彩富庶又漫长的一生。
Simon would have regarded with impotent fury the disturbance between the North and the South , as it left his descendants stripped of everything but their land , yet the tradition of living on the land remained unbroken until well into the twentieth century, when my father Atticus Finch , went to Montgomery to read law, and his younger brother went to Boston to study medicine. Their sister Alexandra was the Finch who remained at the Landing : she married a taciturn man who spent most of his time lying in a hammock by the river wondering if his trot-lines were full.
如果Simon泉下有知，那么他对于南北之间的战乱也只能表示无奈的愤怒了。而他给予子孙的所有的东西都在战乱中遗失了，除了他的土地。然而其家族生活的传统却并未因此废除。直到20世纪，当我父亲Atticus Finch 去蒙哥马利学法律，以及v他的表弟去波士顿学医学时才渐渐废除这一生活传统。父亲的姐姐Alexander 负责留守家园：她嫁给了一个只知道躺在河边吊床上沉默寡言，满脑子思考的都是他的网线是否装满了鱼的男人。
When my father was admitted to the bar, he returned to Maycomb and began his practice . Maycomb , some twenty miles east of Finch's Landing, was the country seat of Maycomb County. Atticus 's office in the courthouse contained little more than a hat rack, a spittoon, a checkerboard and an unsullied Code of Alabama.His first two clients were the last two persons hanged in the Maycomb County jail .Atticus had urged them to accept the state's generosity in allowing them to plead Guilty to second-degree murder and escape with their lives ,but they were Haverfords, in Maycomb County a name synonymous with jackass. The Haverfords had dispatched Maycomb's leading blacksmith in a misunderstanding arising from the alleged wrongful detention of a mare , were imprudent enough to do it in the pressence of three witnesses,and insisted that the-son-of-a bitch-had-it-coming-to-him was a good enough defense for anybody.They persisted in pleading Not Guilty to first-degree murder ,so there was nothing much Atticus could do for his clients except be present at their departure, an occasion that was probably the beginning of my father's profound distaste for the practice of criminal law.
当我的父亲取得律师资格后，便回到了Maycomb 开始了他的律师生涯。Maycomb ，大约离祖宅以东20多英里，是Maycomb市的中心。我父亲的办公室就在这里，不过这里十分的简朴，仅仅有着一个衣帽架，一个痰盂，和一部法典。他最初的两位客户是当地监狱的两名即将被绞死的犯人，我父亲曾催促他们二人去接受州政府判决的二级杀人罪，这样即可免于死罪，但是他们是Haverfords家族的，在当地这个名字也是笨蛋的意思。据说两人是因为一匹母马被非法拘禁，产生了误会，并在三位证人面前，打死了一名铁匠。他们认为只要坚持是那个铁匠自找的，于是就有足够的理由防卫过当了。因此他们坚持对一级谋杀罪提出异议即可。于是这也就没有什么我父亲能帮忙的了。我父亲能做的只是在他们上路的时候陪在旁边，这大概是对于我父亲来说最印象深刻的案例了以及令其厌恶的开端了。
During his first five years in Maycomb , Atticus practiced economy more than anything ; for several years thereafter he invested his earning in his brother's education . John Hale Finch was ten years younger than my father , and chose to study medicine at a time when cotton was not worth growing ; but after getting Uncle Jack started , Atticus derived a reasonable income from the law . He liked Maycomb ,he was Maycomb Country born and bred ; he knew his people , they knew him ,and because of Simon Finch's industry , Atticus was related by blood or marriage to nearly every family in the town.
在Maycomb生活的五年里，父亲专心致志的研究经济；之后的几年里他资助他的表弟继续进修。 John Hale Finch比我父亲小十岁，并且在棉花不值钱的时候毅然决然选择攻读药学； 随着Jack叔叔的脚步，父亲从律师行业得到了一笔可观的收入。 作为一名土生土长的本地人，父亲从心里由衷的喜爱这座城市；大家之间相互熟识，并且由于Simon Finch 的经营，父亲同镇上每一户家庭都有一定的血缘关系。
Maycomb was an old town , but it was a tired old town when I first knew it . In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop ; grass grew on the sidewalks, the courthouse sagged in the square .Somehow ,it was hotter then : a black dog suffered on a summer's day ; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Men's stiff collars wilted by nine in the morning .Ladies bathed before noon , after their three-o'clock naps,and by nightfall were like soft teacakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum.
People moved slowly then . They ambled across the square , shuffled in and out of the stores around it, took their time about everything . A day was twenty-four hours long but seemed longer . There was no hurry , for there was nowhere to go , nothing to buy and no money to buy it with , nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County . But it was a time of vague optimism for some of the people : Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself.
We lived on the main residential street in town ——Atticus , Jem and I , plus Calpurnia our cook. Jem and I found our father satisfactory : he played with us , read to us , and treated us with courteous detachment.
Calpurnia was something else again. She was all angles and bones ; she was nearsighted ; she squinted ; her hand was wide as a bed slat and twice as hard. She was always ordering me out of the kitchen, asking me why I couldn't behave as well as Jem when she knew he was older, and calling me home when I wasn't ready to come .Our battles were epic and one-sided . Calpurnia always won , mainly because Atticus always took her side. She had been with us ever since Jem was born , and I had felt her tyrannical presence as long as I could remember.
Our mother died when I was two, so I never felt her absence. She was a Graham from Montgomery; Atticus met her when he was first elected to the state legislature. He was middle-aged then , she was fifteen years his junior. Jem was the product of their first year of marriage ; four years later I was born , and two years later our mother died from a sudden heart attack. They said it ran in her family. I did not miss her , but I think Jem did . He remembered her clearly , and sometimes in the middle of a game he would sigh at length, then go off and play by himself behind the car-house. When he was like that , I knew better than to bother him.
我的母亲在我两岁那年就去世了，对于母亲的离开，我甚至都没有一丝感受。她是来自Montgomery 的 Graham;在Atticus 第一次成为州议员时遇到了我的母亲。那时父亲才刚刚中年，而母亲仅仅15岁。在幸福婚姻的第一年，Jem就出生了；4年后，我也来到了人世间，然而好景不长，又两年的某天，我们的母亲死于心脏病 。有人说这是家族遗传。然而对于这些，我并不在意，我不曾想念我的母亲，但我觉得Jem和我恰恰相反。他清楚的记得母亲的模样，并且我曾看到过Jem在游戏时，不住的叹气，然后一个人走到车库去玩耍。每次Jem如此，我都会自觉地不去打扰他。
When I was almost six and Jem was nearly ten ,our summertime boundaries (within calling distance of Calpurnia) were Mrs .Henry Lafayette Dubose's house two doors to the north of us , and the Radley Place three doors to the south . We were never tempted to break them.The Radley Place was inhabited by an unknown entity the mere description of whom was enough to make us behave for days on end; Mrs Dubose was plain hell.
That was the summer ，Dill came to us.
Early one morning as we were beginning our day's play in the back yard, Jem and I heard something next door in Miss Rachel Haverford's collard patch. We went to the wire fence to see if there was a puppy——Miss Rachel's rat terrier was expecting——instead we found someone sitting looking at us. Sitting down , he wasn't much higher than the collards. We stared at him until he spoke:
"Hey yourself ," said Jem pleasantly.
"I am Charles Baker Harris," he said ." I can read."
“我叫Charles 。” 我可以读书认字。
"So what?" I said.
"I just thought you'd like to know I can read .You got anything needs readin' I can do it..."
"How old are you," asked Jem ,"four-and-a-half?"
"Goin' on seven."
"Shoot no wonder , then ,"said Jem ,jerking his thumb at me."Scout yonder's been started to school yet . You look right puny for goin' on seven."
"I'm little but I'm old,"he said.
Jem brushed his hair back to get a better look."Why don't you come over ,Charles Baker Harris?"he said."Lord, what a name."
" 's not any funnier'n yours Aunt Rachel says your name's Jeremy Atticus Finch."
我的才没有你的名字好笑呢，Rachel姨妈说你的名字叫 Jeremy Atticus Finch."
Jem scowled." I'm big enough to fit mine ," he said . "Your name's longer'n you are .Bet it's a foot longer."
"Folks call me Dill ,"said Dill , struggling under the fence .
"Do better if you go over it instead of under it," I said ."Where'd you come from?"
Dill was from Meridian , Mississippi , was spending the summer with his aunt , Miss Rachel , and would be spending every summer in Maycomb from now on.
His family was from Maycomb County originally , his mother worked for a photographer in Meridian , had entered his picture in a Beautiful Child contest and won five dollars .
She gave the money to Dill , who went to the picture show twenty times on it.
"Don't have any picture shows here , except Jesus ones in the counthouse sometimes ," said Jem ."Ever see anything good ?"
Dill had seen Dracula, a revelation that moved Jem to eye him with the beginning of respect. "Tell it to us ," he said.
Dill was a curiosity .
He wore blue linen shorts that buttoned to his shirt, his hair was snow white and stuck to his head like duckfluff;
he was a year my senior but I towered over him .As he told us the old tale his blue eyes would lighten and darken ; his laugh was sudden and happy ; he habitually pulled at a cowlick in the center of his forehead.
When Dill reduced Dracula to dust, and Jem said the show sounded better than the book , I asked Dill where his father was :"You ain't said anything about him."
"I haven't got one ."
"Is he dead?"
"Then if he's not dead you've got one ,haven't you?"
Dill blushed and Jem told me to hush , a sure sign that Dill had been studied and found acceptable.
Thereafter the summer passed in rountine contentment .
Routine contentment was : improving our treehouse that rested between giant twin chinaberry trees in the back yard, fussing running through our list of dramas based on the works of Oliver Optic, Victor Appleton, and Edgar Rice Burroughs.
In this matter we were lucky to have Dill He played the character parts formerly thust upon me ----the ape in Tarzan,Mr.Crabtree in The Rover Boys,Mr.Damon in Tom Swift.
在这项活动中，我们十分庆幸有Dill的加入。他扮演了我之前一直扮演的角色，例如人猿泰山里的猿猴，Rover boys中的Crabtree先生，以及Tom Swift里的Damon先生。
Thus we came to know Dill was a pocket Merlin ,whose head teemed with eccentric plans .strange longings , and quaint fancies.
But by the end of August our repertoire was vapid from countless reproductions,and it was then that Dill gave us the idea of making Boo Radley come out.
但当到了8月末的时候，我们的剧本因为无数次的重复而变得索然无味了，于是Dill给我们的主意去引Boo Radley 出来
The radley Place fascinated Dill.
In spite of our warnings and explanations it drew him as the moon draws water, but drew him no nearer than the light-pole on the corner, a safe distance from the Radley gate.
There he would stand,his arm around the fat pole,staring and wondering.
The Radley Place jutted into a sharp curve beyond our house.
Walking south,one faced its porch;the sidewalk turned and ran beside the lot.
The house was low,was once white with a deep front porch and green shutters,but had long ago darkened to the color of the slate-gray yard around it.
Rain-rotted shingles drooped over the eaves of the veranda;
oak trees kept the sun away.
The remains of a picket drunkenly guarded the front yard-a "swept" yard that was never swept --where johnson grass and rabbit -tobbaco grew in abundance.
Inside the house lived a malevolent phantom.
People said he existed ,but Jem and I had never seen him.
People said he went out at night when the moon was down,and peeped in windows.
When people's azaleas froze in a cold snap,it was because he had breathed on them.
Any stealthy small crimes committed in Maycomb were his work.
Once the town was terrorized by a series of morbid nocturnal events:people's chickens and household pets were found multilated;
although the culprit was Crazy Addie,who eventually drowned himself in Barker's Eddy, people still looked at the Radley Place,unwilling to discard their initial suspicions.
A Nergo would not pass the Radley Place at night ,he would cut across to the sidewalk opposite and whistle as he walked.
The Matcomb school grounds adjoined the back of the Radley lot;
from the Radley chickenyard tall pecan trees shook their fruit into the schoolyard,but the nuts lay untouched by the children:
Radley pecans would kill you.
A baseball hit into the Radley yard was a lost ball and no questions asked.